Childhood Obesity in US
In the US, the rate of Childhood obesity has been on a high rise over the past three decades, and today, the United States is known to have some of the most cases of obesity in a child’s life. In deep reality check, the obesity in children has more than doubled and that of adolescence have tripled over more than 25 years ago. It has come to be noted that one out of six children is obese and in the same case, one out of three children is either overweight or obese.
The major cause of obesity in children and adolescence is eating too much and having limited exercise. However, this is not always apparent because some cases of obesity are brought about by genetic factors. That is, if your child has was born form a family of members who are overweight, then the child may end up being obese.
Obesity in childhood has both the instant and long-term effects on the health of a child as well as his/her well living. The immediate effects are; the obese adolescence may have a pre-diabetes which is a condition whereby the levels of glucose will indicate a high risk of diabetes development. Obese children and adolescence are also at a higher risk of having joints and bones complications, sleep apnea as well as some psychosocial problems like low self-esteem and stigmatization.
The long-term effects on health by obesity in childhood are; the obese children and adolescents will most likely be obese when they are grown men and women and this causes them more risk for further heart diseases, some cancer types, strokes or osteoarthritis. The other long-term effect is that obesity and overweight is usually associated with more risks for a lot of cancer types like breast cancer, gall bladder, colon, kidney, ovary, prostrate or cervix cancer. Also the other diseases are lymphoma of Hodgkin and multiple myeloma.
To prevent the occurrence of the related obesity diseases, children should practice a healthy lifestyle habits which will help to lower the risk of becoming obese and having other related diseases. This includes eating healthy and engaging in physical activities. In the United States, schools can establish a secure and supportive environment that has policies and other practices which support the healthy behaviors.
The health of a human being will mostly depend on the childhood raising and this is in relation to the healthy eating and if one is active enough in the physical activities. Parents must therefore develop a strategy of ensuring their children are active enough and not lazy as such. Schools in the United Sates are also expected to create awareness and education on how to prevent obesity by staying and eating healthy.
1. Popkin BM, Doak CM. The obesity epidemic is a worldwide phenomenon. Nutr Rev. 1998;56:106–14.[PubMed]
2. Gupta RK. Nutrition and the Diseases of Lifestyle. In: Bhalwar RJ, editor. Text Book of Public health and Community Medicine. 1st ed. Pune: Department of community medicine AFMC, New Delhi: Pune in Collaboration with WHO India Office; 2009. p. 1199.
3. Bhave S, Bavdekar A, Otiv M. IAP National Task Force for Childhood, Prevention of Adult Diseases: Childhood Obesity. IAP National Task Force for Childhood Prevention of Adult Diseases: Childhood Obesity. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:559–75.[PubMed]
4. Raj M, Sundaram KR, Paul M, Deepa AS, Kumar RK. Obesity in Indian children: Time trends and relationship with hypertension. Natl Med J India. 2007;20:288–93.[PubMed]
5. Laxmaiah A, Nagalla B, Vijayaraghavan K, Nair M. Factors affecting prevalence of overweight among 12 to 17 year old urban adolescents in Hyderabad, India. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:1384–90.[PubMed]
6. Subramanyam V, R,J, Rafi M. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent girls in Chennai in 1981 and 1998. Indian Pediatr. 2003;40:332–6.[PubMed]
7. Chhatwal J, Verma M, Riar SK. Obesity among pre-adolescent and adolescents of a developing country (India) Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13:231–5.[PubMed]
8. Khadilkar VV, Khadilkar AV. Prevalence of obesity in affluent school boys in Pune. Indian Pediatr. 2004;41:857–8.[PubMed]
9. Panjikkaran ST, Kumari K. Augmenting BMI and Waist-Height Ratio for establishing more efficient obesity percentiles among school children. Indian J Community Med. 2009;34:135–9.[PMC free article][PubMed]
10. Williams DP, Going SB, Lohman TG, Harsha DW, Srinivasan SR, Webber LS, et al. Body fatness and risk for elevated blood-pressure, total cholesterol, and serum-lipoprotein ratios in children and adolescents. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:527.[PMC free article][PubMed]
11. Flegal KM, Wei R, Ogden C. Weight-for-stature compared with body mass index-for-age growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75:761–6.[PubMed]
12. Himes JH, Dietz WH. Guidelines for overweight in adolescent preventive services - Recommendations from an Expert Committee. The Expert Committee on Clinical Guidelines for Overweight in Adolescent Preventive Services. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59:307–16.[PubMed]
13. Ghosh A. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: The Calcutta childhood obesity study. Indian J Public Health. 2014;58:125–8.[PubMed]
14. Nawab T, Khan Z, Khan IM, Ansari MA. Influence of behavioral determinants on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school going adolescents of Aligarh. Indian J Public Health. 2014;58:121–4.[PubMed]
15. Flodmark CE, Lissau I, Moreno LA, Pietrobelli A, Widhalm K. New insights into the field of children and adolescents’ obesity: The European perspective. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:1189–96.[PubMed]
16. Lazarus R, Baur L, Webb K, Blyth F. Body mass index in screening for adiposity in children and adolescents: Systematic evaluation using receiver operating characteristic curves. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63:500–6.[PubMed]
17. Davison KK, Birch LL. Childhood overweight: A contextual model and recommendations for future research. Obes Rev. 2001;2:159–71.[PMC free article][PubMed]
18. Anderson PM, Butcher KE. Childhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. Future Child. 2006;16:19–45.[PubMed]
19. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Contributing factors. 2010. [Last accessed on 2014 Jul 01]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov//obesity/childhood/contributing_factors.html .
20. Patrick H, Nicklas T. A review of family and social determinants of children's eating patterns and diet quality. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005;24:83–92.[PubMed]
21. Birch LL, Fisher JO. Development of eating behaviours among children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998;101:539–49.[PubMed]
22. Story M, Neumark-stainzer D, French S. Individual and environmental influences on adolescent eating behaviours. J Am Diet Assoc. 2002;102:S40–51.[PubMed]
23. Chapman G, Maclean H. “Junk food” and “healthy food”: Meanings of food in adolescent women's culture. J Nutr Educ Behav. 1993;25:108–13.
24. Dublin: Department of Health and Children; 2005. Department of Health and Children. Obesity: The policy challenges: The report of the national taskforce on obesity.
25. Niehoff V. Childhood obesity: A call to action. Bariatric Nursing and Surgical Patient. Care. 2009;4:17–23.
26. Ebbelling CB, Sinclair KB, Pereira MA, Garcia-Lago E, Feldman HA, Ludwig DS. Compensation for energy intake from fast food among overweight and lean adolescents. JAMA. 2004;291:2828–33.[PubMed]
27. Kapil U, Bhadoria AS. Television viewing and overweight and obesity amongst children. [Last accessed on 2014 Jul 11];Biomed J. 2014 37:337–8. Available from: http://biomedj.org/preprintarticle.asp?id = 125654 . [PubMed]
28. Budd GM, Hayman LL. Addressing the childhood obesity crisis. Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2008;33:113–7.[PubMed]
29. Moens E, Braet C, Bosmans G, Rosseel Y. Unfavourable family characteristics and their associations with childhood obesity: A cross-sectional study. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2009;17:315–23.[PubMed]
30. Rawana JS, Morgan AS, Nguyen H, Craig SG. The relation between eating- and weight-related disturbances and depression in adolescence: A review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2010;13:213–30.[PubMed]
31. Goldfield GS, Moore C, Henderson K, Buchholz A, Obeid N, Flament MF. Body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, depression, and weight status in adolescents. J Sch Health. 2010;80:186–92.[PubMed]
32. Britz B, Siegfried W, Ziegler A, Lamertz C, Herpertz-Dahlmann BM, Remschmidt H, et al. Rates of psychiatric disorders in a clinical study group of adolescents with extreme obesity and in obese adolescents ascertained via a population based study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1707–14.[PubMed]
33. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski SZ, Wilfley DE, Marmarosh C, Morgan CM, Yanovski JA. Eating-disordered behaviors, body fat, and psychopathology in overweight and normal-weight children. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2004;72:53–61.[PMC free article][PubMed]
34. Zametkin AZ, Zoon CK, Klein HW, Munson S. Psychiatric aspects of child and adolescent obesity: A review of the past 10 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2004;43:134–50.[PubMed]
35. Ackard DM, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Perry C. Overeating among adolescents: Prevalence and associations with weight-related characteristics and psychological health. Pediatrics. 2003;111:67–74.[PubMed]
36. Jansen W, van de Looij-Jansen PM, de Wilde EJ, Brug J. Feeling fat rather than being fat may be associated with psychological well-being in young Dutch adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;42:128–36.[PubMed]
37. Renman C, Engstr I, Silfverdal SA, Aman J. Mental health and psychosocial characteristics in adolescent obesity: A population-based case-control study. Acta Paediatr. 1999;88:998–1003.[PubMed]
38. Schwimmer JB, Burwinkle TM, Varni JW. Health-related quality of life of severely obese children and adolescents. JAMA. 2003;289:1813–9.[PubMed]
39. O’Dea JA. School-based health education strategies for the improvement of body image and prevention of eating problems: An overview of safe and successful interventions. Health Educ. 2005;105:11–33.
40. Austin SB, Haines J, Veugelers PJ. Body satisfaction and body weight: Gender differences and sociodemographic determinants. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:313.[PMC free article][PubMed]
41. Kostanski M, Fisher A, Gullone E. Current conceptualisation of body image dissatisfaction: Have we got it wrong? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2004;45:1317–25.[PubMed]
42. Lundstedt G, Edlund B, Engström I, Thurfjell B, Marcus C. Eating disorder traits in obese children and adolescents. Eat Weight Disord. 2006;11:45–50.[PubMed]
43. Decaluwxe V, Braet C. Prevalence of binge-eating disorder in obese children and adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:404–9.[PubMed]
44. Decaluwxe V, Breat C, Fairburn CG. Binge eating in obese children and adolescents. Int J Eat Disord. 2003;33:78–84.[PubMed]
45. Cornette R. The emotional impact of obesity on children. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. 2008;5:136–41.[PubMed]
46. American Academy of Pediatrics. About childhood obesity. [Last accessed 2014 Jul 14]. Available from: http://www.aap.org/obesity/about.html .