"Fifteenth of August" redirects here. For other uses, see 15 August.
|Independence Day of India|
The national flag of India hoisted on the Red Fort in Delhi; hoisted flag is a common sight on public and private buildings on Independence Day.
|Significance||Commemorates the independence of India|
|Celebrations||Flag Hoisting, parade, fireworks, Singing Patriotic Songs and the national anthem, Speech by the Prime Minister and President of India|
|Next time||15 August 2018 (2018-08-15)|
Part of a series on the
|History of India|
Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly. India still retained King George VI as head of state until its transition to full republican constitution. India attained independence following the Independence Movement noted for largely nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience led by the Indian National Congress (INC). Independence coincided with the partition of India, in which the British India was divided along religious lines into the Dominions of India and Pakistan; the partition was accompanied by violent riots and mass casualties, and the displacement of nearly 15 million people due to religious violence. On 15 August 1947, the Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahori Gate of the Red Fort in Delhi. On each subsequent Independence Day, the prime minister customarily raises the flag and gives an address to the nation.
The holiday is observed throughout India with flag-hoisting ceremonies, parades and cultural events. There is a national holiday, and schools and government offices distribute sweets, but no official work is done.
Main article: Indian independence movement
European traders had established outposts in the Indian subcontinent by the 17th century. Through overwhelming military strength, the British East India company subdued local kingdoms and established themselves as the dominant force by the 18th century. Following the First War of Independence of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led the British Crown to assume direct control of India. In the decades following, civic society gradually emerged across India, most notably the Indian National Congress Party, formed in 1885.:123 The period after World War I was marked by British reforms such as the Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms, but it also witnessed the enactment of the repressive Rowlatt Act and calls for self-rule by Indian activists. The discontent of this period crystallised into nationwide non-violent movements of non-cooperation and civil disobedience, led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.:167
During the 1930 s, reform was gradually legislated by the British; Congress won victories in the resulting elections.:195–197 The next decade was beset with political turmoil: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress' final push for non-cooperation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism led by the All-India Muslim League. The escalating political tension was capped by Independence in 1947. The jubilation was tempered by the bloody partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan.:203
Independence Day before Independence
At the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress, the Purna Swaraj declaration, or "Declaration of the Independence of India" was promulgated, and 15 August was declared as Independence Day. The Congress called on people to pledge themselves to civil disobedience and "to carry out the Congress instructions issued from time to time" until India attained complete independence. Celebration of such an Independence Day was envisioned to stoke nationalistic fervour among Indian citizens, and to force the British government to consider granting independence.:19 The Congress observed 26 January as the Independence Day between 1930 and 1946. The celebration was marked by meetings where the attendants took the "pledge of independence".:19–20 Jawaharlal Nehru described in his autobiography that such meetings were peaceful, solemn, and "without any speeches or exhortation". Gandhi envisaged that besides the meetings, the day would be spent "... in doing some constructive work, whether it is spinning, or service of 'untouchables,' or reunion of Hindus and Mussalmans, or prohibition work, or even all these together". Following actual independence in 1947, the Constitution of India came into effect on and from 26 January 1950; since then 26 January is celebrated as Republic Day.
In 1946, the Labour government in Britain, its exchequer exhausted by the recently concluded World War II, realised that it had neither the mandate at home, the international support, nor the reliability of native forces for continuing to control an increasingly restless India.:203 In February 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced that the British government would grant full self-governance to British India by June 1948 at the latest.
The new viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, advanced the date for the transfer of power, believing the continuous contention between the Congress and the Muslim League might lead to a collapse of the interim government. He chose the second anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II, 15 August, as the date of power transfer. The British government announced on 3 June 1947 that it had accepted the idea of partitioning British India into two states; the successor governments would be given dominion status and would have an implicit right to secede from the British Commonwealth. The Indian Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo 6 c. 30) of the Parliament of the United Kingdom partitioned British India into the two new independent dominions of India and Pakistan (including what is now Bangladesh) with effect from 15 August 1947, and granted complete legislative authority upon the respective constituent assemblies of the new countries. The Act received royal assent on 18 July 1947.
Partition and independence
08.30 a.m. Swearing in of governor general and ministers at
09.40 a.m. Procession of ministers to Constituent Assembly
09.50 a.m. State drive to Constituent Assembly
09.55 a.m. Royal salute to governor general
10.30 a.m. Hoisting of national flag at Constituent Assembly
10.35 a.m. State drive to Government House
06.00 p.m. Flag ceremony at India Gate
07.00 p.m. Illuminations
07.45 p.m. Fireworks display
08.45 p.m. Official dinner at Government House
10.15 p.m. Reception at Government office.
Millions of Muslim, Sikh and Hindu refugees trekked the newly drawn borders in the months surrounding independence. In Punjab, where the borders divided the Sikh regions in halves, massive bloodshed followed; in Bengal and Bihar, where Mahatma Gandhi's presence assuaged communal tempers, the violence was mitigated. In all, between 250,000 and 1,000,000 people on both sides of the new borders died in the violence. While the entire nation was celebrating the Independence Day, Gandhi stayed in Calcutta in an attempt to stem the carnage. On 14 August 1947, the Independence Day of Pakistan, the new Dominion of Pakistan came into being; Muhammad Ali Jinnah was sworn in as its first Governor General in Karachi.
The Constituent Assembly of India met for its fifth session at 11 pm on 14 August in the Constitution Hall in New Delhi. The session was chaired by the president Rajendra Prasad. In this session, Jawaharlal Nehru delivered the Tryst with Destiny speech proclaiming India's independence.
Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance. It is fitting that at this solemn moment, we take the pledge of dedication to the service of India and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
|— Tryst with Destiny speech, Jawaharlal Nehru, 15 August 1947|
The members of the Assembly formally took the pledge of being in the service of the country. A group of women, representing the women of India, formally presented the national flag to the assembly.
The Dominion of India became an independent country as official ceremonies took place in New Delhi. Nehru assumed office as the first prime minister, and the viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, continued as its first governor general.:6 Gandhi's name was invoked by crowds celebrating the occasion; Gandhi himself however took no part in the official events. Instead, he marked the day with a 24-hour fast, during which he spoke to a crowd in Calcutta, encouraging peace between Hindu and Muslim.:10
Independence Day, one of the three National holidays in India (the other two being the Republic Day on 26 January and Mahatma Gandhi's birthday on 2 October), is observed in all Indian states and union territories. On the eve of Independence Day, the President of India delivers the "Address to the Nation". On 15 August, the prime minister hoists the Indian flag on the ramparts of the historical site Red Fort in Delhi. Twenty-one gun shots are fired in honour of the solemn occasion. In his speech, the prime minister highlights the past year's achievements, raises important issues and calls for further development. He pays tribute to the leaders of the Indian independence movement. The Indian national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana", is sung. The speech is followed by march past of divisions of the Indian Armed Forces and paramilitary forces. Parades and pageants showcase scenes from the independence struggle and India's diverse cultural traditions. Similar events take place in state capitals where the Chief Ministers of individual states unfurl the national flag, followed by parades and pageants.
Flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural programmes take place in governmental and non-governmental institutions throughout the country. Schools and colleges conduct flag hoisting ceremonies and cultural events. Major government buildings are often adorned with strings of lights. In Delhi and some other cities, kite flying adds to the occasion. National flags of different sizes are used abundantly to symbolise allegiance to the country. Citizens adorn their clothing, wristbands, cars, household accessories with replicas of the tri-colour. Over a period of time, the celebration has changed emphasis from nationalism to a broader celebration of all things India.
The Indian diaspora celebrates Independence Day around the world with parades and pageants, particularly in regions with higher concentrations of Indian immigrants. In some locations, such as New York and other US cities, 15 August has become "India Day" among the diaspora and the local populace. Pageants celebrate "India Day" either on 15 August or an adjoining weekend day.
As early as three years after independence, the Naga National Council called for a boycott of Independence Day in northeast India. Separatist protests in this region intensified in the 1980s; calls for boycotts and terrorist attacks by insurgent organisations such as the United Liberation Front of Assam and the National Democratic Front of Bodoland, marred celebrations. With increasing insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir from the late 1980s, separatist protesters boycotted Independence Day there with bandh (strikes), use of black flags and by flag burning. Terrorist outfits such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Hizbul Mujahideen and the Jaish-e-Mohammed have issued threats, and have carried out attacks around Independence Day. Boycotting of the celebration has also been advocated by insurgent Maoist rebel organisations.
In the anticipation of terrorist attacks, particularly from militants, security measures are intensified, especially in major cities such as Delhi and Mumbai and in troubled states such as Jammu and Kashmir. The airspace around the Red Fort is declared a no-fly zone to prevent aerial attacks and additional police forces are deployed in other cities.
In popular culture
On Independence Day and Republic Day, patriotic songs in regional languages are broadcast on television and radio channels. They are also played alongside flag hoisting ceremonies. Patriotic films are broadcast. Over the decades, according to The Times of India, the number of such films broadcast has decreased as channels report that audiences are oversaturated with patriotic films. The population cohort that belong to the Generation Next often combine nationalism with popular culture during the celebrations. This mixture is exemplified by outfits and savouries dyed with the tricolour and designer garments that represent India's various cultural traditions. Retail stores offer Independence Day sales promotions. Some news reports have decried the commercialism.Indian Postal Service publishes commemorative stamps depicting independence movement leaders, nationalistic themes and defence-related themes on 15 August.
Independence and partition inspired literary and other artistic creations. Such creations mostly describe the human cost of partition, limiting the holiday to a small part of their narrative.Salman Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children (1980), which won the Booker Prize and the Booker of Bookers, wove its narrative around children born at midnight of 14–15 August 1947 with magical abilities.Freedom at Midnight (1975) is a non-fiction work by Larry Collins and Dominique Lapierre that chronicled the events surrounding the first Independence Day celebrations in 1947. Few films centre on the moment of independence, instead highlighting the circumstances of partition and its aftermath. On the Internet, Google has commemorated Independence Day since 2003 with a special doodle on its Indian homepage.
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Independence holds great importance for everyone across the world, irrespective of caste, class, gender or race. Thus, in India too Independence Day is considered a momentous day in its history. It was 15th of August, 1947 when India got its freedom from the long slavery of around 200 years of the British Rule. It would ever remain a holy day for every Indian because we have achieved our Independence after much struggle and sacrifices.
We have shared below various short and long paragraphs on Independence Day of India of different word lengths. We wish these Independence Day paragraphs will help you in completing your school projects. These paragraphs are written in simple words so that the reader can understand the meaning and use it as a sample in order to prepare their own essay, speech, article, etc depending upon the occasion and their needs.
Paragraph on Indian Independence Day
Paragraph on Independence Day – 1 (100 words)
Independence Day is a National Festival of India celebrated on 15th of August every year. India became a free country on this day and it’s only then we could secure our democratic rights as citizens of India. Our Independence gives us the reason to enjoy our fundamental rights laid down by the constitution. We are now a self-governed democratic country and have the voting rights. The feeling of self-reliance and freedom fills the heart of the citizens with supreme happiness and joy. It is all due to the tireless efforts and numerous sacrifices of several great people who sacrificed their lives without any fear.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 2 (150 words)
Every year on 15th August, India celebrates Independence Day. India became an independent country in the year 1947, thus a gazetted holiday is declared annually to commemorate this date. Each one of us is born free, dies free and wants to live free. India achieved its Independence with great struggle and effort. Several freedom fighters and many great men sacrificed their lives to achieve nation’s freedom from the grip of British rule. The movement of independence in India was started by the Indian freedom fighters under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. These freedom fighters endured severe struggle in order to achieve the nation’s freedom. 15th August is celebrated with high enthusiasm in order to pay honour to our legendary freedom fighters, who sacrificed their lives for our motherland. Independence Day motivates us to love our country and be forever willing to sacrifice our lives for its honour and integrity.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 3 (200 words)
15th August 1947 is the day of great significance in the history of India. On this auspicious day, India achieved its freedom from the British rule and became a free and democratic country. It’s a historical day as several freedom fighters sacrificed their lives to liberate the nation. The respect for the Independence Day is still strong in the hearts of every Indian, which can be easily evinced from the grand celebrations that happen nationwide.
It’s a spectacular scene and different states celebrate the occasion in a different way; but the view of the capital city is fabulous. Pipe railings are fixed on the sides of the road leading to the Red Fort and hundreds of loudspeakers get fixed around the fort so that even distant people can hear the speech of the Prime Minister without any difficulty. In order to regulate the traffic, police deputations are posted in large numbers who also ensure the security of the V.I.Ps, diplomatic envoys, foreign dignitaries, Ministers and Members of Parliament, etc.
Media also plays an important role and ensures that no single event gets missed by the common citizen and hence, Doordarshan, other TV channels and All-India Radio make special arrangements for a live telecast along with the running commentary.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 4 (250 words)
Independence Day in India is celebrated with high zeal, fervour and great enthusiasm on 15th August every year. Every particle of the atmosphere gets charged with the affection of the motherland on this significant day. Small children carry Tri-colours in their hands heading with zeal towards their schools early in the morning in order to become a part of the flag hoisting ceremony and participate in different events that take place in their schools. Almost every vehicle such as cars, auto rickshaw, motorbikes, etc would have a tri-colour flying on the top of it. Patriotic songs can be heard at every corner of the street.
Independence Day is highly significant as India achieved its freedom on this remarkable day. We celebrate this day in order to pay honour to countless Indian citizens, who dedicated their lives in the service of our country and sacrificed everything to win back its freedom. This is also an occasion to glorify the great Indian culture and tradition which has impressed the whole world.
This day is marked by the flag hoisting ceremony by the honourable prime minister of India at the Red fort who also delivers the speech addressing the citizens of India. The Independence Day is celebrated with equal enthusiasm at every government and private institutions including schools, colleges and universities. Flags are hoisted and sweets are distributed to honour this day of historical importance. Almost 70 years have passed, since India achieved Independence, but the day will always remain as young as it was 70 years before.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 5 (300 words)
India is a democratic country. We all celebrate Independence Day on August 15th every year but there is a history behind how India became Independent. After Britishers ruled for 200 long years, some of the great people launched the freedom fight against the British rule and under the leadership of Great Mahatma Gandhi. Eventually, India became a free nation on 15th August 1947. At the midnight when the entire world was sleeping, India rose as a free nation promising peace, equality, prosperity and liberty. On the first Independence Day, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of free India celebrated this occasion by hoisting the Tricolour National Flag at the Red Fort which later became the tradition.
The zeal and enthusiasm of people towards the celebration of Independence Day is increasing year after year. Even the print and online media, including TV Channels and Radio Broadcast get charged with patriotism. Inspirational Films and programmes based on patriotic concepts are telecasted to educate people and children about the various incidents and stories of our freedom struggle in order to inspire people’s love for our motherland. Newspapers also print special editions including inspirational stories of our freedom fighters or excerpts written or quoted by great philosophers.
Independence Day, therefore, is an important day for every Indian. It reminds us of the great sacrifices made by our freedom fighters to liberate our motherland. It also reminds us that our ancestors have performed their share of duties with great motivation and dedication and now it’s our turn to give even a better shape to our country so that India remains equally respectable worldwide as it ever is. We are the future of India and the nation now looks up to us for remaining as prosperous and peaceful as it used to be earlier.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 6 (350 words)
15th of August, 1947 is a highly respectable day for India as it was on this auspicious day when India achieved its freedom from the British rule. The day is celebrated as the Independence Day and it’s declared as a national holiday countrywide. The British had ruled over India for around 200 years. Though, they came to India for trading purpose and soon became the rulers due to our internal discords and misunderstandings, which offered them better scopes to establish their hegemony.
Our Independence is marked with freedom movements and the non-violence movement led by the great leader Mahatma Gandhi. His witty tactics and quality of great perseverance stood out, to which the Britishers finally had to succumb. The Independence movement was such an inspiring force that it united everyone belonging to different castes, religion, classes or beliefs. Women also joined the movement and great women like Sarojini Naidu, Aruna Asaf Ali, Vijay Laxmi Pandit, Kasturba Gandhi, Kamala Nehru and Annie Besant contributed largely to the freedom movement.
In order to celebrate this glorious day, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India unfurled the National Tricolour Flag on the ramparts of Red Fort for the first time; since then this day is celebrated with much zeal as the Independence Day across the country. It has become the National Festival and the fervour and enthusiasm of our countrymen is worth observing. 15th August is declared as the National Holiday and major government and private offices, schools, colleges, universities, shops, factories and other business enterprises remain closed on this Day.
Even though, it’s celebrated at a grand level in all the States and the Union Territories; but in the capital City Delhi, it is celebrated in a very special manner; the respected Prime Minister of India hoists the National Flag in the traditional manner at the Red Fort in front of a huge congregation of the Indian citizens and the foreign dignitaries. The Prime Minister also delivers the speech sharing the information about the development and progress made by the country and the problems encountered, the dangers that may lie ahead and the future plans are highlighted.
Paragraph on Independence Day – 7 (400 words)
Independence Day is the day when every citizen of India pay honour to their respected leaders and to all those freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives for the freedom of India in the past. It’s a great celebration day and during the entire period of Independence Day, major government buildings are decorated with the strings of lights along with the beautiful tricolour that wave from the rooftop of various homes and buildings of our country lovers.
The effort for India’s Independence started in Meerut with the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857. Later on, the Indian National Congress and different political organizations launched the independence movement nationwide under the guidance of the great leader Mahatma Gandhi, in the 20th century. With a lot of struggle and after losing the lives of several freedom fighters and citizens of our country, colonial powers were finally aborted and independence was granted to India on August 15, 1947.
India thus became a free country and the first prime minister of Independent India Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru gave his popular “Tryst with Destiny” speech.
In places like Delhi and various other cities, kite flying adds to the Independence Day celebration. The sky gets dotted with numerous kites flown from the rooftops and the fields symbolizing the freedom of India. The Red Fort of Delhi also holds great significance in relation to the Independence Day as the first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru unveiled the flag of India at this place on August 15, 1947. Our national flag is divided horizontally into three colours consisting saffron at the top, white in the middle and green at the bottom in same proportion. A navy-blue wheel is embedded in the centre called chakra with 24 spokes. It is influenced by the wheel appearing on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
Independence Day is observed on 15th August in all the states and union territories in India. The respected President of India addresses speech to the nation on the eve of Independence Day and on the day of Independence, the honourable prime minister hoists the tricolour Indian Flag on the ramparts of the historical Red Fort in Delhi and delivers speech highlighting the past achievements and the plans for future development. Flag hoisting observance and cultural programme celebrations take place in various governmental and non-governmental institutions throughout India. Independence Day in India is observed as the national Holiday and thus the major offices and schools remain closed.
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